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Mengapa Islam Memakai Kalender Bulan?

Sejak awal peradaban, manusia sudah merasakan perlunya sistem pembagian waktu menjadi satuan-satuan periode "bulan" dan "tahun" yang lazim disebut Kalender atau Taqwim (Arab). Kebutuhan manusia akan sistem kalender itu bertemali dengan kepentingan kehidupan sehari-hari mereka dan atau kepentingan kehidupan keagamaan mereka.

Acuan yang digunakan untuk menyusun kalender atau taqwim tersebut adalah siklus pergerakan dua benda langit yang sangat besar pengaruhnya pada kehidupan manusia di Bumi, yakni Bulan dan Matahari. Kalender yang disusun berdasarkan siklus sinodik Bulan dinamakan Kalender Bulan (Qamariyah, Lunar). Kalender yang disusun berdasarkan siklus tropik Matahari dinamakan Kalender Matahari (Syamsiyah, Solar). Sedangkan kalender yang disusun dengan mengacu kepada keduanya dinamakan Kalender Bulan-Matahari (Qamariyah-Syamsiyah, Luni-Solar).

Sekitar empat ribu tahun lebih sebelum masehi, bangsa Arab telah membuat Kalender Matahari atau Syamsiyah. Pada waktu itu tahun Syamsiyah terdiri dari 365 hari dengan rincian 360 hari dibagi menjadi 12 bulan dengan umur masing-masing 30 hari, dan 5 hari untuk pesta perayaan tahunan bangsa Arab. Belakangan Kalender Syamsiyah itu digunakan juga oleh masyarakat Romawi. Bangsa Arab sendiri kemudian beralih pada Kalender Bulan atau Qamariyah yang digunakan juga oleh masyarakat Mesir kuno dan Babilonia. Kalender Qamariyah¬Syamsiyah digunakan oleh orang-orang Cina dan India.

Islam yang datang untuk pertama kalinya kepada masyarakat Arab mengukuhkan penggunaan kalender qamariyah yang telah berlaku di kalangan mereka itu dengan cara mengaitkan waktu pelaksanaan beberapa ketentuan syari'ahnya kepada kalender tersebut serta membuat sistemnya menjadi mapan. Islam -misalnya- memapankan konsep ''bulan'' (syahr, month) dalam kalender tersebut sebagai periode waktu yang membentang di antara dua penampakan hilal berurutan, dan "tahun" (sanah) sebagai periode waktu yang terdiri dari dua belas "bulan". Ketika orang-orang kafir menyisipkan tambahan bulan untuk menunda masuknya bulan Muharram, al-Qur'an (at-Taubah: 37) mengecamnya dengan menegaskan bahwa perbuatan mereka itu hanyalah menambah kekafiran belaka.

Jatuhnya pilihan Islam terhadap sistem qamariyah sebagai kalender formal syar'inya agaknya bukan semata karena kebetulan ia turun untuk pertama kalinya kepada masyarakat pengguna kalender itu, tetapi sistem kalender qamariyah itu -dibandingkan dengan syamsiyah- adalah lebih sejalan dengan karakter Islam sendiri sebagai agama yang mudah.

Dalam kalender qamariyah, umur bulan (syahr) bisa diketahui dengan mudah melalui pengamatan yang sederhana terhadap Bulan. Hal itu terkait dengan sunnatullah tentang siklus pergerakan Bulan yang membuat Bulan hadir dalam pengamatan manusia di Bumi dalam posisi dan bentuk penampakan yang selalu berubah setiap hari secara signifikan. Perubahan itu berupa pergeseran posisinya ke arah Timur sejauh rata-rata 13° setiap hari atau setara dengan 26 kali garis tengah piringannya, dan pergeseran itu sekaligus mengakibatkan perubahan bentuk penampakannya. Mengenai fenomena ini Al-Qur' an (Yasin: 39) menyatakan: "Kami tetapkan bagi Bulan manzilah-manzilah, sehingga kembalilah dia sebagai bentuk tandan yang tua."

Keadaan seperti itu tidak terjadi pada Matahari yang hadir dengan bentuk penampakan yang relatif sama setiap hari. Meskipun sebenarnya posisi Matahari itu juga bergeser, yakni ke Utara atau ke Selatan, tetapi pergeserannya itu terjadi tidak secara mencolok karena per hari rata-rata hanya sebesar 0° 15' 24,54", atau hanya setengah kali garis tengah piringannya. Karena itu -tidak seperti dalam kalender qamariyah- umur bulan dalam kalender syamsiyah tidak bisa dengan mudah diketahui lewat pengamatan yang sederhana terhadap Matahari.

Dengan penghampiran ini dapatlah dipahami kalau Nabi SAW memberi petuniuk kepada kaum muslimin generasi awal-yang masih Ulnmi-4 untuk memulai dan mengakhiri puasa Ramadan berdasarkan rukyat atau pengamatan terhadap penampakan Hilal. Dengan gambaran sebagaimana telah dikemukakan, perintah rukyat tersebut tentu menjadi tidak relevan seandainya Islam menjatuhkan pilihannya pada kalender "syamsiyah".

KH Abdul Salam Nawawi

Ketua Lajnah Falakiyah Nahdlatul Ulama (LFNU) Jawa Timur

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